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The Aromatherapy School

Aromatherapy Monograph



Lavender Essential Oil

by

Joie Power, Ph.D.

INFORMATIONAL MONOGRAPH

LATIN NAME: Lavandula angustifolia (aka L. Vera; L. officinalis)
COMMON NAME: LAVENDER (aka TRUE LAVENDER)
FAMILY: Labiatae

DESCRIPTION/HABITAT: True lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is one member of a genus of 39 species of flowering plants of the mint family (Labiatae) that are considered "lavenders" and it is important not to confuse "true" lavender with other members of the Lavandula genus as their actions and properties are distinctly different. The Lavandula genus includes annuals, woody perennials and small shrubs. Lavandula angustifolia is a small, evergreen woody herb reported by most sources to be native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region, tropical areas of Africa, southern India, and the area around modern day Iraq. Today, it is in medicinal use by indigenous people in Mexico, outside its region of origin, where it is mixed with the native Heimia salicifolia together with Tagetes lucida, and Rosmarinus officinalis as a bathing preparation used to aid women who are infertile (Ratsch, C., The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants, Park Street Press, 1998, p. 267). It seems logical that the plant would have been introduced by invading Europeans who brought it with them.

Today, several species of lavender, including true lavender, grow wild in the alkaline soils of the mountainous regions of France. These types of poor soils produce the best plants for essential oil. The natural habitat of lavender is restricted to a relatively small area between 2,296 and 3,609 feet in the southern French Alps and this area is now the only source of true wild lavender (L. vera). The mountains around the French towns of Barles, Bayons and Barreme have long been important for the cultivation of lavender. The town of Digne-les-Bains is famous for its five day lavender festival, which draws members of the fragrance industry from all over the world. The area around Vaucluse also produces some fine lavender.

Lavender is commercially grown outside its native range in Europe, England, Australia, Russia, and America. Today, the major producers of the essential oil are in France, Bulgaria, Croatia and Russia. The French essential oils are generally regarded as the best.

Lavender flowers produce abundant nectar and yield a high quality honey which is sold and marketed worldwide and this enterprise also makes an important economic contribution to those areas where lavender is grown.

HISTORY: The name "lavender" is often said to come from the Latin word "lavare" meaning "to wash" because the Romans were known to use it in their baths. However, Sally Festing in The Story of Lavender (Festing, S., The Story of Lavender, Hyperion Books, 1985) suggests that the English name "lavender" most likely came from the Latin word "livendula" which means "bluish" and is the root of the word "livid".

Lavender is one of the oldest medicinal herbs, having over 2500 years of recorded use. The Phoenicians and Egyptians had at least primitive methods of extracting the oil and used it in the mummification process. The lavender plant may have first been domesticated in Arabia well before the time of Jesus and was used there as an expectorant and antispasmodic. From Arabia, it was then carried by the Greeks and Romans, who used it to cure or ward off a host of illnesses. Eventually it reached France, Spain, Italy and England where it became well established as a remedy for stomach complaints and nervousness and as a cosmetic water to benefit the skin. It was used from very early times as a strewing herb for its deodorizing and disinfecting properties. It is also said to repel scorpions and is still used in parts of Europe for this purpose, where houses in the countryside will often have little bowls of lavender flowers resting on the window ledges. It was said to repel moths and to help prevent "mustiness" from mildew and it has a long history of use in sachets for drawers and closets.

Dioscorides, the famous first century Greek physician, recommended lavender for "griefs of the thorax" and also noted that it relieved headaches, indigestion and sore throats when used internally and was good for treating wounds or burns and for skin conditions when used externally (Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, and c. 65 A.D.). It was often cited by Hildegard of Bingen, the famous 12th century mystic. It was one of her favorite herbs and she recommended it for migraine headaches, a use which has persisted into modern times, as well as for "maintaining a pure character". Later, it was one of the major ingredients of the so-called Thieves Vinegar used in the Middle Ages during the Plague and was also considered an aphrodisiac.

The Pilgrims brought Lavender with them to the New World, although it reportedly did not grow well in the climate. According to some sources, the Shakers were the first to grow lavender commercially in the USA and Canada.

By the 19th Century, doctors used lavender essential oil to treat headaches, memory loss, fainting, depression, and infertility in women.

Maude Grieve, the famous 20th Century herbalist, offered an extensive treatise on various species of lavender in her Herbal and this has been the source of much of the historical information on this plant that is now widely quoted in many books and articles (including this one!). She mentions the use of Lavandula stoechas as a strewing herb used in the churches of Spain and Portugal as well as in bonfires on St. John's Day, when evil spirits were said to be about. Regarding the therapeutic actions and uses of lavender, she mentions its carminative and nervine properties and its use in depression, fatigue, snake bite, headache, loss of memory and an extensive array of other aliments. Grieve's entries on lavender are well worth reading (A Modern Herbal, Vol. II by Mrs. M. Grieve, Dover Edition, 1971).

In addition to the impressive documented history of lavender, there are many other interesting stories. Lavender was said to have been brought out of the Garden of Eden by Adam and Eve because of its beautiful flowers. However, according to one popular legend, it had no scent until Mary laid the wet clothes of the infant Jesus on a lavender bush to dry: when the clothes were removed, the plant exuded its beautiful scent which it has kept to this day.

Many scholars believe that lavender was the herb referred to in the Gospel of Luke which tells of Mary Magdalene applying a fragrant ointment to the feet of Jesus. Although in most translations the ointment is said to contain "spikenard", a name given today to an entirely different herb (Nardostachys jatamansi), the Greek name for lavender was "nardus" and the plant was often just called "nard" and possibly "spikenard".

Legend says that Cleopatra used the lovely fragrance of lavender oil to seduce Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony but, of course, since this was before the time of Jesus, this story conflicts with the story cited above of how the lavender plant got its scent (but these are myths after all!). The Romans believed that asps (snakes) lived under lavender bushes and the asp that killed Cleopatra is said to have been found under one of her lavender plants. Maude Grieve, in A Modern Herbal, quotes a Dr. Fernie as saying that lavender was formerly believed to be the "habitual abode of snakes" .

Lavender has been used as a "witch's herb" for many centuries. It is said to protect against evil eye, evil spirits and ghosts. In the esoteric texts of the Middle Ages it was said to be ruled by Jupiter, although some modern Wiccans place it under Mercury. Paul Beyerl, author of the well known Wiccan reference A Compendium of Herbal Magic, identifies it as an herb with associations to Saturn as well as Mercury and the sign of Virgo. (Beyerl, P. A Compendium of Herbal Magic, Phoenix Publishing, Inc., 1998, p. 219.

In the mythology of Greece, Lavandula stoechas was said to be one of the plants found in the Garden of Hecate. Hecate is a complex mythological character, said to be the immortal daughter of a Titan, who Zeus worshipped above all others and to whom he gave a part of the sky, the earth and the underworld so that she could be effective in each of those realms. She has been honored as a representation of the three fold goddess, manifesting in her various forms as Hecate, Artemis, and Selene. Persephone, the wife of Pluto, was also often considered to be a manifestation of Hecate.

In modern ritual use lavender is considered primarily an herbe of fertility, love, protection and purification, and visionary abilities. It has very old uses in divining the identity of one's true love and is still used in this way. It is also used in handfasting and marriage rituals, and for smudging homes and aspurging magical circles and ritual spaces. Its use as a visionary herbe may stem from its ancient association with Hecate and her status as an archetype of shamanic abilities. Lavender is used in rituals to invoke Hecate, Jupiter, Saturn or Mercury. Paul Beyerl identifies it as an herbe to use for magical assistance in bringing any goal into manifestation.

PARTS USED: The essential oil is distilled from the flower stalks and flowers. The best quality oil is distilled from just the flowers which are stripped from the stalks. In herbal medicine, the fresh or dried flowers are used in infusions, tinctures, or macerated oils. The fresh or dried flowers are also used in cooking and impart a delicious, distinctive flavor to cookies, sauces, and other dishes.

BUYING PRECAUTIONS AND ADVICE: Lavender oil is frequently adulterated and even among unadulterated oils there is wide variation in quality so it's important to deal only with companies that specialize in supplying therapeutic quality oils and to consider the country of origin. Lavender grown in America is often nicely fragrant and can be used for fragrancing products but it will not have the therapeutic properties of a French or even an English or Bulgarian lavender. Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia), which is more plentiful and therefore cheaper, is often passed off as "lavender"; this mistake can be avoided by looking for the botanical name.

Between 1960 and 1992, the French production of lavender decreased from about 150 tons to 25 tons a year. Because the lavender industry provided the main employment for people living in many areas, the French government took steps to revive it. They introduced "improved" varieties of lavender that were selected for greater vigor and higher yields of essential oil, which could be grown at lower altitudes, and which could be propagated by cuttings. These plants produce a good essential oil but it is not as good as the oil produced by the "original" wild plants. The best essential oil comes from the wild type lavender, which can be propagated only by seed and is grown only at the higher altitudes. This is called "fine" lavender. The fine lavender that is grown in some of the areas around Vaucluse, Drome, and Haute-Alpes that are above 2600 feet is given an official mark of quality by the French government. This mark is called the Appellation d'orgine Controlee (AOC). There is a maximum annual output of 25 tons of essential oil with this designation. This essential oil is not available from regular commercial retailers in the US and must be sought from small companies; it's hard to find and very expensive. Other fine lavenders which come from the same region but do not carry the AOC award are a little cheaper and easier to find: look for High Alpine or "Provence" lavenders from France.

HARVESTING AND EXTRACTION: Flowers stalks are harvested in full bloom and during the hottest part of the day. The best oils come from flowers that are distilled immediately, with no drying or fermentation since fresh lavender yields more esters. The altitude of the distillery also influences the ester content due to the fact that water boils at a lower temperature at high altitudes and a lower distillation temperature captures and preserves esters.

An absolute and concrete of lavender are also produced by solvent extraction for use in perfumery but should not used in aromatherapy.

CHARACTERISTICS: Lavender oil is clear and colorless to pale yellow or yellowish green. It has a sweet, floral-herbaceous scent. Lavenders with noticeable camphor have a sharper, more penetrating smell. It feels slightly slick between the fingers and absorbs quickly. The taste is somewhat camphoraceous and sharp.

BLENDING: Lavender essential oil has wonderful aromatic properties and blends well with most other essential oils, especially citrus and floral oils. It can aid in blending some challenging aromas, such as patchouli, pine, and tea tree. It helps also to soften the impact of oils that may be too stimulating for some people.

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS: This is a complex essential oil with over 100 constituents including linalyl acetate, linalool, lavandulol, lavandulyl acetate, terpineol, cineol, limonene, ocimene, pinene, caryophyllene, linalyl butyrate, geranyl acetate, camphor, coumarin, etc. The essential oils of lavender with a high ester content and relatively low cineol and camphor are preferred; French lavenders grown above 2000 feet yield these profiles if properly distilled.

FREQUENTLY CITED THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS: analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, antitussive, calming/sedative, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue (mild), hypotensive, immune stimulant (leukocytosis), insecticide, nervine, stimulant (dose related), pulmonary antiseptic; sudorific, stomachic, sudorific, tonic (cardio and nervine), vulnerary, increases gastric secretions and peristalsis

FREQUENTLY CITED USES:
Internal (for discussion purposes only; not recommended except under medical supervision): Amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, colic, cough, cystitis, poor digestion, earache, enteritis, eruptive fevers, flatulence, headache, hypertension, irritability, melancholy, nervous indigestion, neurasthenia, infection, insomnia, measles, migraine, nausea, intestinal parasites, tension, ulcers, vertigo

External: abscesses, abdominal cramps, acne, anxiety, athlete's foot, arthritis, boils, bronchitis, bruises, burns, catarrh, cellulite, colds/flu, colic, dandruff, debility, depression, dermatitis/eczema, dysmenorrheal, flatulence, headache, hypertension, insect bites, insomnia, leucorrhoea (intra-vaginal use not recommended except with professional supervision), muscular aches and pain, neuralgia, psoriasis, rheumatism, scalds, scanty periods, scars, sinus congestion/infection, sores, spasmodic coughing, sprains, stress, sunburn, thread veins, toothache, minor wounds

Lavender essential oil is described as one of the most versatile essential oils and a wide range of therapeutic uses is reported. It is described as having outstanding cooling, soothing, and calming properties which make it useful in conditions involving inflammation, spasm, pain and restlessness. Lavender can be used alone but, like all essential oils, may be optimally effective when used in a blend. NOTE: LAVENDER MUST BE USED IN THE APPROPRIATE DOSE TO ACHIEVE BEST RESULTS. 4 DROPS OR LESS PER APPLICATION PRODUCES A RELAXING, BALANCING EFFECT. WHEN MORE THAN 4 DROPS ARE GIVEN IN A TWO HOUR PERIOD, LAVENDER MAY LOOSE ITS BALANCING AND CALMING EFFECT AND CAN BECOME TOO STIMULATING, LEADING TO RESTLESSNESS AND ANXIETY.

Lavender essential oil is credited with being a welcome component in remedies for colds/flu and other respiratory conditions because of its reported abilities to fight infection, support the immune system, ease muscle and joint aches, reduce inflammation, relax the mind and body, and quell restlessness. It is said to help the body to rest and heal and to overcome exhaustion. For colds and flu, it has been recommended to blend lavender with marjoram to help relieve body aches and with eucalyptus to fight infection and help clear the respiratory system. A mixture of lavender and tea tree oil put in the diffuser is said to help prevent the spread of infection. Inhalations of lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus and lemon may help clear the patient's head and nose and fight infection in the whole respiratory system (make a mixture of 2 parts lavender essential oil to one part of any or all of the other ingredients and put 1 to 3 drops of this mixture into a bowl of steaming water; the aroma should be barely detectable; repeat as desired at 3 hour intervals). A "massage" oil made by blending 4 drops of lavender and 2 drops of marjoram in a tablespoon of carrier oil (such as grapeseed oil) and applied gently to the body, especially around the joints, may help to relieve the body pain and aches that can accompany colds and flu. Do not actually "massage" someone who has a cold, the flu, or other respiratory infection - just gently rub a little of the "massage" oil into the skin, either where there is pain or on the chest and throat, where the vapors will rise towards the face and be inhaled. If the patient is strong enough for a warm bath, 4 drops of lavender and 2 drops of marjoram can be mixed in a tablespoon of whole milk or honey and added to the bath water. Take care when bathing a person who is weak and debilitated - fainting can occur easily and without warning. Lavender also blends well with Ravensara and this combination may be useful in cases of colds/flu and other respiratory infections.

Lavender has been described as having remarkable balancing effects on the central nervous system (provided it's used in proper doses, as noted above) and as being an outstanding choice for people who are suffering from stress, tension, insomnia, nervous exhaustion and related depression. It is described as calming and soothing to the nervous system and the body-mind and its reputed tonic properties are believed to help overcome exhaustion and apathy. Lavender blended with Frankincense may help to overcome fatigue and nervous exhaustion. Its calming and sedative properties are said to be enhanced by combining it with other reportedly calming oils such as Roman chamomile, marjoram, and neroli. Citrus oils and other floral oils are believed to enhance its ability to uplift the spirit and combat depression. A beautiful blend for nervous exhaustion can be made with lavender, frankincense, and petitgrain.

Lavender essential oil is widely used for all kinds of muscular aches and pains and arthritis. It combines well for these purposes with German chamomile, Roman chamomile, cajuput, eucalyptus, and marjoram. For menstrual cramps and other pain caused by smooth muscle spasm (such as stomach cramps or gall bladder pain), try a combination of lavender, bergamot, Roman chamomile and a smaller amount of peppermint applied as a warm compress (put three drops of your mixture in a soup bowl of warm water, soak a clean rag in this, wring it out and apply it over the abdomen). When using essential oils in a warm (never hot) compress be sure to monitor for skin irritation, since heat increases the potential for this. Although some practitioners advise covering the compress with plastic wrap, I prefer to use a clean, dry towel. Or, blend a few drops of this mixture with a vegetable oil at proper dilutions and applied over the painful area.

A single drop of lavender rubbed on each temple or the base of the skull is often reported as being effective for relieving headaches, including migraines - some, but not all, people reportedly get better results from 1 drop of lavender combined with 1 drop of peppermint; this is one of the rare applications where essential oils are used undiluted.

SELECTED RESEARCH: Note: Proper evaluation of research findings is a complex process which requires appropriate training in research design and methodology as well as statistics. Many variables may confound an investigation's results and limit the applicability or generalization of results. In any field of research one will find conflicting results and one way in which scientists attempt to resolve and understand these conflicts is by evaluating the appropriateness of the project's design and execution. In the field of aromatherapy, one thing that has especially hampered attempts to reconcile conflicts in research findings is that investigators rarely specify the source of the essential oils used in their study and since the quality of essential oils varies greatly and has an enormous impact on the results achieved this is a significant problem. Another problem in determining the actions and efficacious uses of essential oils arises from the fact that a significant amount of what is described in references on aromatherapy has been taken either from tradition or research in the broader field of herbal medicine and is based on the actions and uses of other herbal preparations (such as teas, tinctures or whole herbs) of the plants in question. Also, many studies cited in the aromatherapy literature have been based on individual components (so-called "active" constituents) isolated from whole essential oils. While these types of studies are not without merit, I have purposely chosen to limit this section to studies that have employed whole essential oils. This section is by no mean exhaustive

Moss M, Cook J, et al, "Aromas of Rosemary and Lavender Essential Oils Differentially Affect Cognition and Mood in Healthy Adults", International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 113, Issue 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 15-38: Results suggest that olfactory presentation of lavender essential oil decreased performance on cognitive tasks while rosemary oil produced mixed results (performance on some measures was enhanced compared to controls while on other measures it was degraded); the rosemary group was found to have greater alertness than the control or lavender groups, while both the lavender and rosemary groups reported better mood than controls. The authors conclude that the olfactory properties of essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance and subjective effects on mood.

Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, et al, "Aromatherapy: evidence for the sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation", Naturforsch C. 1991, Nov-Dec; 46 (11-12): pp 1067 - 72. Inhalation of lavender essential oil was found to reduce caffeine-induced hyperactivity in mice to near-normal motility. The reduction showed a correlation with serum linalool levels and the authors conclude that the study provides support for the aromatherapeutic use of herbal pillows to facilitate falling asleep and to reduce stress.

Saeki Y, "The effect of foot-bath with or without essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system: a randomized trial", Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 2000, Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 2-7. Subjects sat with their feet soaking in hot water, with or without lavender essential oil, for ten minutes during which electrocardiogram, finger-tip blood flow and respiration were recorded; autonomic function was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. The foot baths caused no changes in heart rate or respiratory rate but produced a significant increase in blood flow. On spectral analysis, the parasympathetic activity increased significantly during both types of foot-bath. In the lavender foot-bath, there were delayed changes to the balance of autonomic activity in the direction associated with relaxation.

Soden K, Vincent K, et al, "A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting", Palliative Medicine, 2004, Vol. 18, No. 2, 87-92. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive massage with or without lavender essential oil added to the inert massage base. Outcome measures include a Visual Analog Scale of pain intensity, a sleep scale, an anxiety and depression scale, and symptom checklist. No significant long-term effects were found for lavender essential oil in terms of improving pain control, anxiety or quality of life. Sleep scores improved in both groups and depression scores improved in the massage-only groups. The authors conclude that lavender essential oil did not increase the beneficial effects of massage.

Bardeau F., "Utillisation d'HE aromatiques pour purifier et desodoriser l'air (Use of essential aromatic oils to purify and deodorize the air", Le Chirurgien-dentiste de France, 1976, Sept 29; 46 (319): 53 Vaporized essential oils and their capacity to destroy bacteria such as Proteus, Staph. Aureus, Strep. Pyrogenes and others were examined. Oils which were found to be the most effective in destroying air borne bacteria included clove, lavender, lemon, marjoram, mint, niaouli, pine, rosemary, and thyme.

Piccaglia R, Deans S G, et al, "Biological activity of essential oils from lavender, sage, winter savory, and thyme of Italian origin", 1993 Programme Abstracts 24th International Symposium on Essential Oils. The oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against 25 species including food poisoning types and human disease pathogens. All oils showed good activity against the majority of the bacteria. Lavender was most effective against Clostridium sporogenes.

Imberger I, Rupp J, et al, "Effect of Essential Oils on Human Attentional Processes" 1993 Programme Abstracts 24th International Symposium on Essential Oils, The authors investigated the effects of inhaled jasmine and lavender on human attentional processes. The excitatory effects of jasmine and sedative effects of lavender were clearly indicated in the results of vigilance tests. No effects were demonstrated regarding alertness as measured by reaction time.

Dale A, Cornwall S, "The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial", Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1994, 19:89-96. 635 women participated in a clinical trial to asses the possible benefits of adding lavender oil to daily bath water for the first 10 days following childbirth. Subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: one in which 6 drops of lavender essential oil was added, one with the addition of an inert aromatic substance, and one with synthetic lavender oil. Analysis of daily discomfort scores showed no significant differences between the groups. The authors concluded that lavender essential oil was not effective in this application.

SAFETY DATA: Lavender essential oil is generally considered non-toxic, non-irritant, and non-sensitizing in normal doses. However, at least one author has reported that it can cause dermatitis (J.A. Duke, 1985, cited in Aromatherapy for Health Professionals by Shirley and Len Price, 2nd Edition, 1999). Also, as with most essential oils, the potential for skin irritation increases as the product oxidizes with age.

An article in the Feb1, 2007 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine reported one researcher's concern that products containing lavender and/or tea tree essential oils may have been responsible for abnormal breast development in three pre-pubertal boys. Each of these boys had used a product, such as a soap or hair product, containing one or both of these essential oils and the author hypothesized that since these oils have a weak hormonal effect in vitro, they could have caused the abnormal growth in the boys. This article received a lot of press and has raised concerns for some about the use of these oils, despite the fact that the study was poorly designed and not well controlled. The Aromatherapy Trade Council (Great Britain) has published a critique of the study and dismisses the conclusions of the original article as unfounded. My review of both articles suggests that the study was poorly designed and I feel that it's unlikely that the abnormal breast growth was caused by either lavender or tea tree oil. However, I would like to see further, better designed research on this issue.

COMMENTS: Lavender is relaxing at low doses (4 drops or less) but stimulating at higher doses. Also, when using it as an anti-inflammatory, use low concentrations (less than 1%) as in higher concentrations it may over-stimulate circulation. For muscular complaints use concentrations of 2 to 4%.

Gabriel Mojay calls it an "aromatic Rescue Remedy" because it acts to calm any strong emotion that threatens to overwhelm the Mind (Gabriel Mojay, Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit, 1997).

*This information is provided for educational interest and is not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any disease.

Copyright © 2010 Joie Power, Ph.D. / The Aromatherapy School  |  All Rights Reserved


Dr. Power is a retired board certified neuropsychologist and former Assistant Professor of Surgery/Neurosurgery at the Medical College of Georgia, where she performed intra-operative cortical mapping with renowned neurosurgeon Herman Flanigan, M.D. She has over 20 years of clinical experience in both in-patient and out-patient settings and during her years of practice has also been both a practitioner and student of alternative healing methods, including herbal medicine, aromatherapy, Reiki, Chinese Medicine, and other energetic healing systems. Her extensive formal training and experience in the olfactory and limbic systems of the brain give her a unique qualification for understanding the actions of essential oils in the body. Dr. Power, founder of one of the earliest essential oil companies in the U.S. to specialize in therapeutic quality essential oils, is now a clinical consultant for Artisan Aromatics as well as an internationally known writer and teacher in the fields of aromatherapy and alternative medicine. Her approach to aromatherapy weaves together her solid scientific training and strong clinical skills with a holistic philosophy that honors body, mind and spirit. Dr. Joie Power is also the author of The Quick Study Guide to Aromatherapy and numerous published articles on aromatherapy and related topics.



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